**FRACTIONS - The Basics**

Fractions represent part of a whole. The top number is called the

**NUMERATOR**and the bottom number is the**DENOMINATOR**. The denominator tells how many total parts there would in in one whole. The numerator tells how may parts of that whole we have. EXAMPLE: The fraction 2/3 means that one whole pie would be divided up into three pieces, and we only have two of those three pieces. We have two-thirds of one pie. One whole can also be represented as a "set", like a bag of marbles. If there are a total of 15 marbles in a bag and 6 of them are black, you could say 6/15 of the marbles are black.**FRACTIONS**-

**Greatest Common Factor (GCF)**

You will use the GCF when

*reducing fractions*to "simplest terms" or "lowest terms". The size of the fraction has not actually changed though the numerator and denominator may change. Reduced fractions are equivalent (equal) to the original fraction. For example, 2/4 is reduced to 1/2, and they both represent the same amount of a pie or candy bar.

**FRACTIONS**-

**Least Common Multiple/Denominator**

**(LCM or LCD)**

You will use the LCD / LCM to convert fractions in order to: 1) compare them, 2) add them, or 3) subtract them. Sometimes you can compare fractions mentally (one is obviously less than 1/2 and the other is obviously bigger than 1/2), but sometimes fractions will be so close in size that they will need to be converted to have the same denominators before comparing them.

**FRACTIONS**-

**Adding & Subtracting with Different Denominators**

First, you need to convert the fractions to be equivalent fractions having the same denominator.

Next, you simply add or subtract the numerators, keeping the same denominator.

Finally, you reduce the answer to simplest form.

**FRACTIONS - Mixed Numbers and Improper Fractions**

Fractions that include both a whole number and a fraction are called Mixed Numbers, i.e. 4 1/2.

Fractions that have a numerator larger than the denominator are called Improper Fractions, i.e. 23/7.

Sometimes it helps to convert Mixed Numbers to Improper Fractions, and visa-versa.

**FRACTIONS - Adding & Subtracting Mixed Numbers**

It is easiest if students convert the mixed numbers to improper fractions first, convert the improper fractions to have the same denominator, subtract, then simplify (in this order). Watch the video to see how this is done.

**FRACTIONS - Multiplying**

**FRACTIONS - Dividing**